Juni Die jungen Briten sind die Verlierer des Brexit-Referendums. Sie waren Daten der Wahlbezirke in Beziehung zu deren Wahlergebnis setzte. Juni Denn die Befürchtung, dass ein Brexit einen Dominoeffekt auch auf andere europäische Länder haben könnte, ist groß. Schon jetzt fordern die. EU-Kommissar Moscovici signalisiert in der Brexit-Debatte die Bereitschaft, den Austrittstermin zu verschieben. In der Irland-Frage zeigt die EU sich jedoch.
wahlergebnisse brexit - directlyOktober um Aufgrund des für die Konservativen enttäuschenden Wahlergebnisses geriet die Premierministerin erheblich in die Kritik. Socialist Party of Great Britain. Unsere Ergebnisse stimmen mit der Einschätzung überein, dass das Abstimmungsergebnis des Referendums weitgehend von langjährigen fundamentalen Determinanten angetrieben wurde. Jahrhunderts eine Phase des wirtschaftlichen Niedergangs, viele Geschäfte stehen seitdem leer. Juni fest, weil der Wahlkreis Kensington London wegen knapper Mehrheitsverhältnisse dreimal ausgezählt werden musste. The vote was only weakly related to EU trade and economic policy. Stattdessen blieb sie halsstarrig.
In the twelve months to June , according to the Office for National Statistics, the number of non-EU citizens living in the UK on a long term basis rose by , By contrast the number of citizens from elsewhere in the EU rose by 74, In other words, the result of the referendum has already had an impact before Brexit has actually happened.
There is much debate about the long-term costs and benefits to the UK economy of Brexit - but what we do know for certain is that the EU wants the UK to settle any outstanding bills before it leaves.
But the calculation of an exact UK share will depend on exchange rates, on interest rates, on the number of financial commitments that never turn into payments, and more.
The UK says that if there is no deal agreed on Brexit it would pay substantially less and focus only on its "strict international legal obligations".
The UK could leave without any Brexit "divorce bill" deal but that would probably mean everyone ending up in court battles. If compromise can be achieved, and if payment of the bill were to be spread over many years, the amounts involved may not be that significant economically.
Probably not, is the answer. It would depend on whether or not the UK decided to get rid of current safety standards. If there is a no-deal Brexit, drivers may need a GB sticker if they are travelling to an EU member state, even if their car has a Euro-plate a number plate displaying both the EU flag and a GB sign.
Predictions of immediate doom were wrong, with the UK economy estimated to have grown 1. The UK economy continued to grow at almost the same rate in although there was slower growth, of 1.
Inflation rose after June but has since eased to stand at 2. Annual house price increases have steadily fallen from 8. This is the lowest annual increase in prices for five years, but it is still higher than inflation so property continues to show "real terms" increases in prices.
How has business been affected by Brexit? A fall in the pound means exports get a boost as UK goods will be cheaper to buy in other countries, but some imported goods could get more expensive.
It is hard to tell. State pensions are set to continue increasing by at least the level of earnings, inflation or 2. There was an early post-referendum cut in interest rates, which has helped keep mortgage and other borrowing rates low.
The reasonably strong performance of the UK economy, and the increase in inflation led to the Bank of England raising interest rates from 0.
Interest rates going up generally makes it more expensive to pay back a mortgage or loan - but should be good news for savers as they should get amore interest on their money.
The possible return of duty-free could be part of negotiations on a future trade deal after December If the UK leaves without a deal, duty-free sales could return.
It was set up by the Council of Europe, which has 47 members including Russia and Ukraine. So quitting the EU will not exempt the UK from its decisions.
It is based in Luxembourg. It is the European Court of Human Rights, not the ECJ that has often upset British politicians by making it harder, for example, to deport terrorist suspects.
The ECJ interprets and enforces the rules of the single market, settling disputes between member countries over issues like free movement and trade.
It is at the centre of pretty much everything the EU does and it having the power over UK actions has been a key issue for those arguing for the UK to leave to the EU to regain full sovereignty.
After that, there will need to be a new mechanism for settling disputes between the UK and the EU but what form that take has yet to be decided.
There has been talk of an ombudsman, or some other third party, being appointed to settle disagreements. The political declaration document makes clear that ECJ will continue to have a role on interpreting EU law after Brexit.
So at one extreme, "hard" Brexit could involve the UK refusing to compromise on issues like the free movement of people even if it meant leaving the single market or having to give up hopes of aspects of free trade arrangements.
At the other end of the scale, a "soft" Brexit might follow a similar path to Norway, which is a member of the single market and has to accept the free movement of people as a result of that.
Britain was a member of a free trade area in Europe before it joined what was then known as the common market. In a free trade area countries can trade with each other without paying tariffs - but it is not a single market because the member states do not have to merge their economies together.
The European Union single market, which was completed in , allows the free movement of goods, services, money and people within the European Union, as if it was a single country.
It is possible to set up a business or take a job anywhere within it. The idea was to boost trade, create jobs and lower prices. But it requires common law-making to ensure products are made to the same technical standards and imposes other rules to ensure a "level playing field".
Critics say it generates too many petty regulations and robs members of control over their own affairs. Mass migration from poorer to richer countries has also raised questions about the free movement rule.
A free trade area v EU single market. The customs union ensures EU member states all charge the same import duties to countries outside the EU.
It allows member states to trade freely with each other, without burdensome customs checks at borders, but it limits their freedom to strike their own trade deals.
It is different from a free trade area. In a free trade area no tariffs, taxes or quotas are charged on goods and services moving within the area but members are free to strike their own external trade deals.
The government says the UK is leaving the customs union after the transition period but ministers have yet to decide on what will replace it.
Article 50 is a plan for any country that wishes to exit the EU to do so. It was created as part of the Treaty of Lisbon - an agreement signed up to by all EU states which became law in Before that treaty, there was no formal mechanism for a country to leave the EU.
Britain got a new Prime Minister - Theresa May. The former home secretary took over from David Cameron, who announced he was resigning on the day he lost the referendum.
She became PM without facing a full Conservative leadership contest after her key rivals from what had been the Leave side pulled out. Theresa May surprised almost everyone after the Easter Bank Holiday by calling an election for 8 June it had not been due until She said she wanted to strengthen her hand in Brexit negotiations with European leaders.
She said Labour, the SNP and other opposition parties - and members of the House of Lords - would try to block and frustrate her strategy.
You can get more detail on the election here. No nation state has ever left the EU. She has called for an extension of the month transition period to give the UK government more time to negotiate a compromise with opposition parties - and has officially asked for another referendum to be held, on the final Brexit deal.
The SNP leader wants to stay in the customs union and single market after Brexit, describing it as the "least damaging" option for the UK economy as a whole - and has thrown her weight behind the campaign for another EU referendum.
They officially started a year after the referendum, on 19 June, The UK and EU negotiating teams met face-to-face for one week each month, with a few extra sessions also thrown in ahead of EU summits.
Their first tasks were trying to get an agreement on the rights of UK and EU expat citizens after Brexit, reaching a figure for the amount of money the UK will need to pay on leaving, the so-called "divorce bill", and what happens to the Northern Ireland border.
A provisional deal on these issues was reached on 8 December, They then agreed terms for the "transition" phase and now have moved on to the permanent post-Brexit relationship, while trying to agree on the precise wording of the divorce issues.
Theresa May set up a government department, headed by veteran Conservative MP and Leave campaigner David Davis, to take responsibility for Brexit talks.
Former defence secretary, Liam Fox, who also campaigned to leave the EU, was given the new job of international trade secretary and Boris Johnson, who was a leader of the official Leave campaign, was foreign secretary.
These three were each playing roles in negotiations with the EU. Dominic Raab took over as Brexit secretary - but resigned in November - and Jeremy Hunt is foreign secretary.
Mrs May has made clear that she is in charge of the negotiations and the new Brexit Secretary Steve Barclay will not be getting heavily involved in the Brussels talks.
He started out at the top official at the Brexit department but was moved to the Cabinet Office to work directly for Theresa May, as the PM took more control over the process.
They said Britain was being held back by the EU, which they said imposed too many rules on business and charged billions of pounds a year in membership fees for little in return.
They also wanted the UK to make all of its own laws again, rather than being created through shared decision making with other EU nations.
The Leave campaign also objected to the idea of "ever closer union" between EU member states and what they see as moves towards the creation of a "United States of Europe".
The Conservative Party was split on the issue and officially remained neutral in the campaign. Those campaigning for Britain to stay in the EU said it got a big boost from membership - it makes selling things to other EU countries easier and, they argued, the flow of immigrants, most of whom are young and keen to work, fuels economic growth and helps pay for public services.
Big business - with a few exceptions - tended to be in favour of Britain staying in the EU because it makes it easier for them to move money, people and products around the world.
Others are less optimistic, fearing products for the European market may have to be made at plants in the EU. Here are a selection of questions sent in - you can ask yours via the form at the end of this page.
The good news for Edward, from Cambridge, who asked this question, is we have been working on exactly such a list. Click here for the latest version.
In answer to this query from Nancy from Hornchurch - the UK is one of 10 member states who pay more into the EU budget than they get out. Only France and Germany contribute more.
Read more number crunching from Reality Check. Dee, from Launceston, wanted to know what would happen to EU laws covering protected species such as bats in the event of Britain leaving the EU.
That means the government then has time to decide what laws to keep, scrap or change without the risk of a legal black hole on the first day after Brexit.
The status of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas, which are designated by the EU, would be reviewed to see what alternative protections could be applied.
The same process would apply to European Protected Species legislation, which relate to bats and their habitats. The issue has been a hot one and Environment Secretary Michael Gove has insisted that the UK will maintain or enhance its environmental laws.
Sophie from Peterborough, who asks the question, need not worry. The EBU - which is totally independent of the EU - includes countries both inside and outside of the EU, and also includes countries such as Israel that are outside of Europe.
The UK introduced the pet passport scheme in , replacing the previous quarantine laws. It means you and your dog, cat or ferret can travel between the UK and the EU and other participating countries as long as it has a passport, a microchip and has been vaccinated against rabies.
Pet owners planning to travel with their animals, would need to get them microchipped and vaccinated against rabies.
Further details are on the government website. Ged, from Liverpool, suspects "red tape" is a euphemism for employment rights and environmental protection.
According to the Open Europe think tank , four of the top five most costly EU regulations are either employment or environment-related.
Future governments will then be able to amend or scrap them. Brexit may also generate "red tape" of its own - if the UK leaves the single market and the customs union, businesses could face more paperwork as they cross borders into EU countries.
Ste, in Bolton, asked about this. But many on the left, including Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, feared it would shift more power to multinational corporations, undermine public services, wreck food standards and threaten basic rights.
This debate now appears academic as US President Donald Trump is not a fan of the agreement, which means it has been shelved in its previous form - but whatever happens, when the UK quits the EU it would no longer be part of a revived TTIP and is planning to negotiate its own trade deal with the US.
Before the vote the then Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt warned that leaving the EU would lead to budget cuts and an exodus of overseas doctors and nurses.
The Leave campaign dismissed his intervention as "scaremongering" and insisted that EU membership fees could be spent on domestic services like the NHS.
Since the referendum there has been a relaxation of the immigration rules for doctors from outside the EU and an increase in the planned number of "home grown" doctors qualifying through new medical schools.
On top of that the EU has trade agreements with 52 other countries as well. After Brexit, Britain is going to have to negotiate new deals all on its own.
For example you can use tariffs against foreign imports to protect businesses you care about, as the EU does with agricultural produce, but you do then run the risk of retaliation from your trading partners.
The principle of non-discrimination means that WTO members must not treat any member less advantageously than any other.
In practice, this should prevent the EU introducing tariffs on the UK which would discriminate against us, or the UK introducing similar tariffs on the EU.
The two sides would want to avoid a tit-for-tat trade war. They are hoping to strike a broad agreement on trading terms by December , which would include a "free trade area and deep co-operation on goods, with zero tariffs and quotas".
In reply to Peter - there are basically two views on what will happen in terms of clout when outside the EU. View two is that unencumbered by the other 27 members, the UK can get on with things and start adopting a much more independent, self-confident, assertive role on the world stage.
If the UK leaves the EU without a deal, the situation will depend on the individual country where you live. For the Bradleys in Italy, for example, residents from non-EU countries, and that will soon include the Brits, will have to finalise their residency status, acquire an Italian identity card and then apply for an Italian health insurance card.
If they visit the UK at the moment, access to the NHS for non-resident Brits is not straightforward unless you have a European health insurance card.
So, even if you live abroad and pay some British tax on a buy-to-let property for instance, you might find yourself getting a bill for any NHS treatment you end up getting while you are back in the UK.
Peter, a German citizen living in the UK asked this question, and the good news is that if you are an EU national and you get a British state pension, nothing much should change, because the state pension is dependent not on where you come from, but on how long you have paid National Insurance contributions in the UK.
That works for EU countries and another 16 countries with which the UK has social security agreements. Once we have left the EU, you will no longer be able to do that unless we negotiate new reciprocal agreements.
The Irish document means you continue to enjoy the benefits of EU citizenship, and the British passport will give you full rights in the UK at the same time.
Call it one of the clear joys of coming from Northern Ireland, alongside the rolling hills, rugged coastline and enjoyable breaks between the showers.
All you have to do is remember to carry the Irish passport when you are joining the EU citizens-only queue at the airport in future.
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